|European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)|
DESCRIPTION: L=8.5" (22cm). Sexes similar. Adult breeding plumage is iridescent black with a yellow bill. Adult non-breeding plumage is black with light-colored speckles and the bill is dark. "Song" is a series of twitterings and squeaks.
NATURAL HISTORY: Introduced to New York City from Europe in 1890, it has expanded its range widely, including into Tucson. Its aggressive behavior makes it a formidable competitor with native species (e.g., gila woodpeckers and flickers) for nest holes (e.g., saguaro cavities). It feeds on insects and berries.