BIO 109 Online Home
Lab Manual
Natural History Event Species List


Sources: PowerPoints 01f and 01g, Web 1, Web 2, Web 3, text (125-280, 129-151, 155, 183-184, 227-228)

1. Annual (< 1 year), Biennial (2 years), Perennial (> 2 years)

2. Grasses, Forbs, Succulents, Shrubs, Trees

3. A plant that stores water in its tissues - root, stem, leaf

4. Flower

5. A) Petals (attract pollinators), B) Stigma (accepts the pollen), C) Style (holds the stigma up to increase chance of pollination), D) Ovary (produces the eggs, polar nuclei, seeds), E) Sepals (protect flower bud), F) Filament (holds the anther up increase chance of pollination), and G) Anther (produces the sperm/pollen). Note that the Stamen is composed of the anther and filament and the pistil is composed of the stigma, style, and ovary.
flower diagram
6. Perfect (have functioning stamens and pistil), Imperfect (have either functioning stamens or pistil, but not both).

7. Monoecious (male and female flowers on same plant); Dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants).

8. A) Blade, B) Petiole, and C) Expanded leaf base.

Diagram of a leaf

9. Simple (single, undivided blade), Palmately compound (blade divided into leaflets that radiate from single point), Pinnately compound (blade divided into leaflets that come out from both sides along a rachis), Bipinnately compound (blade divided into primary and secondary leaflets along a rachis). Be able to draw each type.

10. Entire (smooth-edged), toothed, lobed

11. Alternate, Opposite, Whorled

12. Germination, Growth, Reproduction, Death

13. Photoperiod, temperature, moisture, light, abrasion, fire, digestive enzymes

14. Asexual cloning; Sexual reproduction

15. Gamete production, Pollination, Double Fertilization, Seed Production, Seed Dispersal

16. Sperm are produced in anthers and eggs are produced in the ovary

17. The transfer of pollen from anther to stigma.

18. Wind, water, and animals

19. The two sperm from the pollen grain travels down the style into the ovary. One sperm fertilizes the egg and produces the embryo which develops into the new plant. The other sperm fertilizes the two polar nuclei and produces the endosperm which feeds the embryo. The embryo and endosperm are packaged into a seed.

20. They have many sepals and petals that blend into each other, they have many anthers (usually hundreds), they have several to many stigma lobes, and they have areoles (modified branch containing buds, hairs, and spines).

21. Most are evergreen leaf succulents with spine-tipped leaves arranged in a rosette.

22. Agave: flower once in lifetime, and most are pollinated by bats.
Yucca: flower annually, and are pollinated by a yucca moth.

23. They add nitrogen to the soil by forming a mutualistic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. They house the bacteria in root nodules.

24. Fabaceae.

25. Nurse plants provide shelter from freezing temperatures, intense sunlight, trampling, etc. to other plants.