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Questions | Answers

1. Ozone is beneficial in the stratosphere as the "ozone layer". The ozone layer reduces the amount of ultraviolet light reaching Earth's surface which reduces skin cancer, eye cataracts, etc. Ozone is bad in the troposphere where it damages respiratory systems, irritates eyes, damages plants, damages building materials such as rubber, paint, and plastics.

2. Ozone depletion occurs in the stratosphere everywhere over Earth. The greatest depletion occurs at the poles and the least at the equator, but ozone depletion occurs over all of Earth's surface.

3. Ozone depletion occurs when CFCs and other chlorine and bromine containing compounds reach the stratosphere and convert ozone to oxygen. In the case of CFCs, the UV light knocks off a chlorine atom from the CFC and the chlorine atom pulls the third oxygen atom off of ozone, converting the ozone to oxygen gas and producing chlorine monoxide.

4. The effects of ozone depletion include skin cancer, eye cataracts, immunosuppression, increased photochemical smog, decreased crop yield, property damage, and other environmental effects.

5. First the Montreal Protocol (an international treaty) called for CFC use to be cut in half by 2000, then the U.S. banned CFC use by 1996.

6. Normal rain has a pH of 5.6.

7. For rain to be considered acid rain, it has to have a pH below 5.6.

8. Buffering Capacity is the ability of a substrate to neutralize an acid or base.

9. Mostly sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from fossil fuel burning.

10. Increased susceptibility to death from frost, pests, and disease due to reduced nutrient and water uptake due to:
a. Direct damage to leaves and bark
b. Soil acidification leaching soil nutrients
c. Soil acidification releasing toxic metals which damage fine roots.
d. Soil acidification killing microorganisms involved in biogeochemical cycling.

11. Other effects of acid deposition include "lake death" and property damage