BIO 105 Home
Questions | Answers
  1. minerals, organic matter (including living things), water, and air
  2. Carbon from air and rest from soil (including water from soil)
  3. Soil Profile
    • surface litter: fresh and partly decomposed organic matter.
    • topsoil: where most living things and nutrients are.
    • zone of leaching: where dissolved materials from above move down.
    • subsoil: accumulated materials from above.
    • parent material: partially broken down rock, source of minerals and inorganic material in soil.
    • bedrock: underlying, unweathered rock.
  4. 200 - 1000 years per inch
  5. When vegetation is removed, the thin topsoil decomposes, leaches, and erodes quickly, leaving the hard, red, iron-rich soil that is unproductive (and this only takes a few years).
  6. Movement of topsoil from one place to another.
  7. Wind and moving water
  8. Vegetation removal because roots hold soil together and also the above ground parts of the plants block wind and moving water.
  9. About 90% attributable to overgrazing, deforestation, and cropland agricultural activities.
  10. Major Effects
    1. Loss of productivity
    2. Increased air and water pollution
    3. Increased flooding
    4. Increased gullying (loss of productive land)
    5. Increased costs due to having to use more fertilizer, irrigation, etc.(this can lead to salinization/waterlogging)
  11. Terracing, contour farming, strip cropping, windbreaks, gully reclamation, planned grazing