BIO 105 Home
Questions | Answers

1. Lithosphere (land), Hydrosphere (water), Atmosphere (air), Organisms (living things)

2. Organism (individual living things), Population (group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at the same time), Community (all populations occupying a given place), Ecosystem (community plus the physical environment in a given place and their interactions), Biome (major type of ecosystem).

3. Ecology: the scientific study of ecosystem structure and function.

4. An ecologist is a scientist studying ecosystem structure and function, whereas environmentalists are individuals interested in the environment (and may or may not be scientists).

5. Energy Source (usually sunlight), Physical Environment (non-living materials), Producers (organisms that make their own food), Consumers (organisms that eat other living things), Decomposers (organisms that eat waste matter and dead organisms).

6. Primary consumers eat producers (thus are herbivores) and a secondary consumers eat primary consumers (thus are carnivores).

7. One-Way flow of energy and matter cycling.

8. Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur: the major elements making up living things.

9. Photosynthesis: carbon dioxide + water + solar energy >> sugar + oxygen
Cellular respiration: sugar + oxygen >> carbon dioxide + water + chemical energy.

10. Hydrological Cycle: the movement of water among the atmosphere, lithosphere, organisms, and hydrosphere.

11. Carbon Cycle: know this outline.

  • Atmosphere: in by respiration, burning fossil fuels/biomass, and volcanoes; out by photosynthesis and dissolving into oceans.
  • Lithosphere: in by lack of decomposition (forms ocean sediment and fossil fuels); out by burning fossil fuels, volcanoes, and weathering of sediments..
  • Hydrosphere: in by dissolving; out by uptake by organisms
  • Organisms: in by photosynthesis and feeding; out by respiration, burning of biomass, and lack of decomposition

12. Nitrogen Cycle

  • Out of atmosphere by nitrogen fixation (converting inorganic nitrogen to organic nitrogen) caused by nitrogen fixing bacteria mostly.
  • Into atmosphere by denitrification (converting organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen) caused by denitrifying bacteria.