HOW SIZE MATTERS IN REGULATING BODY TEMPERATURE
Size affects everything. Here, though, I will discuss specifically how size matters to regulating body temperature.
Concept: Small-bodied animals or plant parts (e.g., leaves) heat up and cool down faster; bigger and/or thicker bodies heat up and cool down slower.
Explanation: smaller/thinner bodies have a larger surface area to volume ratio (see examples below). Bodies gain and lose heat out of the surface of their body; more surface area means greater gains and losses. Bodies retain heat within their bodies; more volume means more heat retention. When the surface area is large compared to the volume (small/thin things), heat is gained and lost quickly because there is lots of surface area to gain and lose heat and relatively little volume to retain heat.
Advantages and Disadvantages to being Large:
Advantages and Disadvantages to being Small:
Summary Example : A plant can either have very small leaves that never heat up higher than air temperature or very large leaves that heat up so slowly that they never reach lethal temperatures, but a plant doesn't want to have leaves in the middle sizes if the temperatures are going to be extremely hot or cold.
Examples illustrating surface area to volume ratio:
Consider two individuals exactly alike except in size. The smaller individual is 1' by 1' by 1' in size and the larger individual is 2' by 2' by 2' in size. The small individual has less surface area (length times width times number of sides = 1' x 1' x 6 sides = 6 square feet) than the large individual (24 square feet). The small individual has less volume (length times width times height = 1' x 1' x 1' = 1 cubic foot) than the large individual (8 cubic feet). But the small individual has twice as high a surface area to volume ratio (surface area divided by volume = 6 divided by 1 = 6) as the large individual (24 divided by 8 = 3)!