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last updated 8/14/07

HOW TO CITE SOURCES
see Plagiarism section of syllabus for importance of citing sources

CITING SOURCES IN THE BODY OF PAPER

a) Jones and Smith (1999) found that research is fun.
b) Research is fun (Jones and Smith 1999). Notice: the period goes after the parentheses.
c) "Man-eating plants are a significant global problem" (Smith and Jones 2001, p. 64). Notice: the citation includes the page number of the quoted material.

CITING SOURCES IN LITERATURE CITED SECTION OF PAPER (Alphabetize!)

BOOK FORMAT:
Author lastname, First initial. Middle initial. Year published. Title of book. Publisher, City.

MacMahon, J. A. 1985. Deserts. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

JOURNAL ARTICLE FORMAT (with volume numbers):
Author lastname, First initial. Middle initial. Year published. Title of article. Journal Name then Volume Number:start page-end page.

Hansen, J.W., A.W. Hodges, and J.W. Jones. 1998. ENSO influences on agriculture in the southeastern United States. Journal of Climate 11:404-411.

Note: If each issue starts with page 1 then you also need to add the issue number in parentheses after the volume; for example, Scientific American 268(1):90-109.

MAGAZINE ARTICLE FORMAT (with dates):
Author lastname, First initial. Middle initial. Year published. Title of article. Magazine then Date of Publication:start page-end page number.

Smith, A.W., and R. Nixon. 2001. The war on pesticides. Newsweek 30 Oct. 2001:58-62.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE FORMAT:
Author lastname, First initial. Middle initial. Year published. Title of article. Newspaper. Date:Section page.

Tilman, G. D. 1998. Ecologist measures nature's mosaic, one plot at a time. Arizona Daily Star. 6 Oct. 1998:B11, B15.

INTERNET FORMAT (for a website):
Author lastname, First initial. Middle initial. Date last updated. Title of Web Page. Accessed at [internet address (e.g., http://www….)] on [date accessed].
Note: often the "author" will simply be the name of the organization.

Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. 2001. Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum Homepage. Accessed at http://www.desertmuseum.org/ on 8/1/2001.

INTERNET FORMAT (for an e-magazine, journal, or newspaper article):
Author lastname, First initial. Middle initial. Year published. Title of article. Journal Name volume number. Accessed at [internet address (e.g., http://www….)] on [date accessed].

Hansen, J.W., A.W. Hodges, and J.W. Jones. 1998. ENSO influences on agriculture in the southeastern United States. Journal of Climate 11. Accessed at http://www.hcb.com/journalclimate/currentissue.html on 9/12/2001.

INTERVIEW FORMAT:
Lastname, First initial. Middle initial. Year contact took place. Individual's Job Position/Title. Type of interview (face-to-face, telephone, letter, etc.) on date interview took place.

Bush, G.W. 2001. President of the United States. Telephone interview on 9/26/2001.


HOW TO FIND INFORMATION

A. Personal Observation

B. Talk with Experts on Subject: For information and references

C. Internet (access in academic computing center, libraries, and elsewhere)

D. Literature from Library

1. Types: a. Books i. avoid because usually out-of-date and second-hand b. Periodicals (journals, magazines, etc.) i. may be timely and right from the source
ii. may be peer-reviewed (scientific)
c. Government Documents


2. How to find pertinent references; best to look at all of the following.

a. Computer Search (if available); not complete

b. Card Catalog for Books

c. Indices for Periodicals

i. Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature -- mostly layperson magazines
ii. General Science Index -- indexes the more common journals

iii. Biological Abstracts -- very thorough; especially easy if search on species

iv. Others


d. Index to Government Documents

i. Go to Government Documents section of library


3. Once you have found good references work both ways

a. Use the citations at the end of your references to find more that has been written earlier.
b. Use Science Citation Index to find references that have cited the reference you have.
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last updated 8/14/07