BIO 109 Home
Questions | Answers

1. It is successful at producing grandchildren in its environment (reproductive success).

2. A trait that improves the population's reproductive success.

3. Our traits are determined by our proteins. Our proteins are produced by our genes in our DNA.

4. A gene is a specific portion of a DNA molecule that codes for a protein and is composed of a sequence of nucleotides that provides the information on how to put together the amino acids making up a protein.

5. All the genes and alleles in a population and their proportions. It is the total genetic variability present in a population.

6. Genetic change in a population over time. A change in the gene pool.

7. Mutation: a change in the DNA sequence
Migration: movement of individuals among populations
Chance (Drift): an individual's reproductive success is affected by chance, not by the individual's genetic makeup.
Natural Selection: an individual's reproductive success is affected by the individual's genetic makeup.

8. Mutation (produces new genes/alleles) and Recombination (creates different combinations of genes due to sexual reproduction).

9. Randomly, as a result of copying errors during cell division, chemicals, and/or radiation.

10. How many grandchildren one individual produces compared to other individuals in the population.

11. Aspects of the environment that affect differential reproductive success. Examples include things that affect survival (e.g., weather, predators, etc.) and reproduction (e.g., mate selection, number of successful offspring raised, etc.).

12. Long jackrabbit ears selected for by high temperatures. Longer ears allow more surface area to radiate heat out of body.

13. Divergent Evolution: two populations within a species become genetically different due to experiencing different selection pressures. White-tailed deer subspecies are larger in the north than here.
Convergent Evolution: two unrelated species come to look/act similarly due to experiencing similar selection pressures. Cactus and ocotillo look superficially similar but are quite different.
Coevolution: two species, because of their interaction with one another, act as selection pressures on each other. Predators have excellent eyesight and their prey are camouflaged.

14. Through divergent evolution that is extensive enough that members of one population can no longer reproduce and produce fertile offspring with members of the other population.