BIO 109 Home
Questions | Answers

1. A group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.

2. Every species is given a two word name. The first word is the genus and the second word is the specific epithet. The first letter of the genus is capitalized and none of the specific epithet is capitalized. Both words are put in italics.

3. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

4. Arthropoda: have jointed legs and an exoskeleton
Chordata: have a nerve cord down their back, usually inside a backbone (vertebrates).

5. Arachnida: 8 legs; scorpions, spiders, ticks, mites
Insecta: 6 legs; ants, flies, beetles, grasshoppers, butterflies, etc.

6. Vertebrate classes covered in Bio 109:
Class Osteichthyes: bony fish - most fish, such as trout
Class Amphibia: amphibians - salamanders, frogs
Class Reptilia: reptiles - turtles, crocodiles, lizards, snakes
Class Aves: birds - eagles, etc.
Class Mammalia: mammals - primates, whales, seals, mice, bats

7. Entomology, Ichthyology, Herpetology, Herpetology (Herpetology is the study of both amphibians and reptiles), Ornithology, Mammalogy

8. 33%, 74%, 86%, 4%

9. Native: naturally occurring in a place. Endemic: naturally occuring only in a particular place. Introduced: brought by humans to a place it did not naturally occur.

10. Habitat: the place or type of place an organism lives and thrives. Niche: what the organism does in its habitat. Range of Tolerance: the range of variability in a particular physical factor that an organism can withstand

11. Food chain: the pathway along which food is transferred from individual to individual. Food Web: all feeding relationships in a community. Herbivores eat mostly plants, Carnivores eat mostly meat, and omnivores eat both plants and meat. The trophic levels are decomposers, producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, 4th level consumers, etc.

12. Mutualism: both benefit - bee and flower, fruit eater dispersing seeds, etc.
Competition: both lose - coyote and bobcat both eating same prey
Predation: predator gains, prey loses - coyote eats mouse
Parasitism: parasite gains, host loses - mistletoe on tree, mosquito on person
Commensalism: one gains, one is unaffected - spider using an abandoned rodent burrow.